In any 3D environment, when you try to bring a particular time of day or night, then you can take advantage of lighting.
Similarly, light can also be used to set the mood of the 3D environment. And lighting is also used to highlight the 3D model as well.
Lighting artist is familiar with how the light behaves in real world, And accordingly he can set the lighting of the digital world.
In the world of 3D animation, you can find different types of lights, such as spotlight, point light, directional light, ambient light, and area light.
During lighting, the Artist also has to consider the properties of the light, For example, different moods can be set by increasing or decreasing the light intensity, colour and brightness.
Apart from this, you can also use different types of lighting techniques 3D Animation, Like three point lighting, two point lighting and single light.
After that, you can also create natural light, like sunlight effect inside 3D animation, And with this effect, you can illuminate your whole scene.
Whereas on the other hand, in software's like Blender, Cinema4D and iClone, we can also use HDRI images as a light sources.
In 3D Lighting you also need to take care of Global Illumination. For example, if a fire is burning inside your 3D animation, the fire will put yellow light around its atmosphere.
After all this, finally comes rendering of your 3D animation, and when you finish working on everything inside the 3D environment, Then you want to show your project output to the audience.
And for this purpose we resort to rendering, which we can also call converting. Rendering converts your project into 2D videos or images, which can be played on any type of digital device.